Cadmium Carbide Formula

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Cadmium carbide is a compound with chemical formula CaC2. It is a brown or grey powder that has high melting point and conducts heat and electricity. It is used industrially to produce acetylene and calcium cyanamide.

It is manufactured by reduction of calcium oxide (lime) with carbon in electric arc furnaces at 2,200 degC. Impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus can also be reduced during the process. The resulting molten calcium carbide is mashed to bring out small lumps that are then separated into finer fractions. The carbide is evaluated by measuring the acetylene it produces during hydrolysis. Phosphorus can be decomposed by moisture to form hydrogen phosphide, a toxic gas. This is why phosphide is normally limited to 0.08% by volume in acetylene.

The cadmium is liberated during casting and use of cadmium solders, coating metals by hot dipping or spraying, manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries for portable telephones, radios and convenience appliances, synthesis and use of pigments used in paints and ceramic glazes, and chemical synthesis. Cadmium is also used in metal plating and coating, welding, and in the production of ferrochrome and chromates.

Exposure to cadmium salts, dusts, and fumes can cause poisoning through inhalation or ingestion. Symptoms include headache, nausea, weakness, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Chronic exposure may cause kidney and liver damage, pulmonary edema, and bronchitis. Cadmium compounds are also carcinogenic in animals.