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Titanium carbide Overview
Titanium carbide has the chemical formula TiC and a molecular weight of 59.89. Gray metallic lattice solid with a face-centered cubic structure. Melting point: 3140+-90, boiling point: 4820, relative densities 4.93. Hardness is greater that 9. Water insoluble, but soluble with nitric and aqua regia. It is stable with air below 800 but will erode by air above 2000. It can react with O2 pure at 1150C.
Transition metal carbides, such as titanium carbide ceramics, are typical. TiC’s unique properties are due to its bonding, which is a mixture of ionic covalent and metallic bonds. TiC has many unique properties due to its crystal structure. These include high hardness, high melt point, wear resistance, and electrical conductivity.
Preparation of Titanium Carbide
Method: The mixtures of titanium and carbon are obtained by hydrogen-reduction TiO2 in high temperature or by TiO2 mixed with carbon powder pressed into blocks. They are then heated in an electric oven to 2300-2700 and carbonized under H2 atmosphere. The hard, crystalline powder of TiC is produced by the reaction between carbon black and titanium dioxide at temperatures higher than 1800degC. Cobalt and nickel are used to compact it for heat-resistant parts and cutting tools. Cutting tools are more brittle, and it’s lighter. Sintered carbide is less likely to produce grooves when combined with the tungsten carbide in tool materials.
Property of titanium carbide
Theoretically TiC contains 20.05 percent carbon. It is a metallic light gray. It is chemically resistant and inert towards hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids. TiC dissolves readily in oxidizing chemical solutions, like aqua regia, nitric and hydrofluoric acids, or hydrofluoric acetic acid. It dissolves also in an alkaline oxidation melt. When heated, nitrogen is formed above -1500degC in a Nitrogenous atmosphere. TiC can be attacked by chlorine and tends oxidize when heated in the air.
The elastic modulus for TiC is 309 706 MPa. The material sintered from 2600 to 3000 has a fracture modulus between 499.8 and 843.2MPa at room temperatures. The thermal modulus is 107.78 – 116.96mpa for 982 and 54.4-63.92mpa for 2200. The melting point of TiC is 3160 degrees C. At room temperature, the resistivity is 180 to 250 It is a good conductor for high temperatures. The thermal coefficient of expansion between 593degC and room temperature is 4.12×10-6/degF. Thermal conductivity is 0.04 CAL/cmS/degC.
Titan carbide ceramics
1. Multiphase Materials: titanium carbide is a super hard material. It can be produced with other materials such as TiN and WC. Titanium carbide ceramics can be used for cutting high-speed regulating wheels, carbon steel and wire because they are resistant to oxidation and do not cause crescent wear. The use of multiphase ceramics containing titanium carbide has been widespread.
2. Coating material: Titanium carbide as a surface coat is an extremely wear-resistant material. By a physical or chemcial method, diamond surfaces are coated with carbides that can form metals and alloys. At high temperature, these metals and alloys react with diamond surfaces carbon atoms to produce stable metal carbides. These carbides are not only able to bond with diamonds, but they can also infiltrate matrix metal. This will enhance the adhesion. Tool life can increase by up to three times with titanium carbide film.
3. The research on nuclear fusion reactors has shown that titanium carbide and composite (TiN+TiC) coating materials, after chemical heat treatments, create a tritium-resistant layer of permeability on the surface titanium carbide. This layer can withstand hydrogen ion exposure and withstand thermal cycles and large temperature gradients.
4. The ceramics made of titanium carbide are good for optical purposes.
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