Six classifications and applications of graphite

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Six classifications of graphite and their applications
The graphite reserves in my country are vast and well distributed. However, many are small- and medium sized minerals. Private small graphite miners have operated in my country, but their added value is low. After many years of hard work, my country has invested in a large amount of money and scientific and technological personnel. The graphite reserves of my country have been used more efficiently after the reorganization and improvement of the graphite use. Now, my country has developed high purity graphite as well as expanded graphite.
1. High purity graphite
High-purity Graphite (carbon contents >99.99%), is used for pyrotechnics in military industry, advanced refractory material in metallurgical industries, Chemical fertilizer additives, catalysts etc.
2. Isostatic Graphite
The graphite used to make isostatic graphite comes from high-purity material. It is known for its low thermal coefficient, high heat resistance, chemical resistance and thermal and electrical conductivity. In the last fifty years, isostatic graphite has become a world-first product. It has not only achieved great success in civil applications, but also holds a prominent position in cutting-edge national defense. This is a brand new material, which is also eye-catching. Mainly used for the following aspects.
(1) Heater to heat polysilicon ingots
As a result of the global warming, the awareness among humans to protect the Earth has increased. More and more people now prefer natural energy that does not emit carbon dioxide. In this trend, solar cell technology has become the “darling of the new age”. The ingot heater that is used during the manufacturing process must be made out of graphite.
Nuclear fission (high temperature gas-cooled) reactor
In order to meet the requirements of graphite as a moderator for high-temperature nuclear reactors that use gas cooling, it must be resistant to deformation and radiation stress. Therefore, a modular high temperature gas-cooled unit was developed. Modern ultra-high temperature reactors are characterized by high temperature and high power density. This puts higher demands on the new generation graphite material: high quality at low cost, high radiation damage tolerance and homogenization of the product, etc.
Nuclear fusion reactor.
Graphite’s special properties also play an important role in nuclear fusion. It can greatly reduce the metal particles in the material’s plasma, and therefore plays an important role in improving energy confinement. As nuclear fusion devices expand, graphite wall materials that have high mechanical and thermal strength are the best choice for the first material to face the plasma. These materials also show a good discharge pulse during application. Because graphite is low in atomic numbers and has low radiation losses, it can be mixed with plasma to keep it stable.
(4) Electric discharge machining electrode.
In the electrodes for electric discharge machining, graphite electrodes offer many advantages. Although graphite is a good material, it has some drawbacks. For example, dust and wear can occur during cutting.
3. Expandable graphite
Also known as acidified or flaked graphite. It is a compound made from high-quality natural graphite. Expanded Graphite offers many advantages, such as high-temperature resistance, high-pressure resistance, good seal performance, and corrosion resistance for various media. It is a type of advanced seal material. It is mainly applied in the following areas.

Environmental protection is one of the most important fields.
Expanded graphite has a lipophilicity that makes it hydrophobic and can remove non-aqueous water solutions. This property is commonly used to remove slicks of oil from the sea surface. A large amount of oil can be absorbed by this product due to its molecular composition. After oil, the graphite can be aggregated in blocks and float on water. It can also be recycled or reused. Expanded graphite, in addition to its selective adsorption, has an inhibitory impact on air pollution. This includes the adsorption and removal of carbon dioxide.
Sealing Material
The flexible graphite made of expanded graphite is used to seal materials.
4. Graphite fluoride
Graphite fluoride, a new material with high-tech performance and efficiency, is a hotspot for research in the world. It is widely used for functional materials due to its unique properties and excellent performance.

(1) It is used as a releaser.
Graphite-fluoride has a low surface energy, which makes it a good release agent for metal moulds.
(2) Solid Lubricants
It is well suited for harsh conditions like high temperature, pressure, corrosion, and heavy loads. For example, High Temperature Lubricants are used for aircraft engines, car bearings, and other high-temperature applications.
(3) Raw materials for batteries
It is difficult to use fluorine in the active material of batteries made from fluorine and lithium because fluorine gas can be poisonous. However, because fluorinated Graphite is a material with excellent electrochemical properties, it’s widely used for integrated circuit memory in computers, watches, and cameras.
5. Colloidal graphite
One of the main features of colloidal graphite is its lubricity. The colloidal film of graphite has an excellent thermal insulation in the vertical direction. It is used widely in turbine propellers and hot steam cylinders. It is used to reduce static electricity in the electronics industry.
6. Graphene
Graphene has a hexagonal honeycomb-like lattice made of carbon atoms, and sp2 hybrid orbitals. This is a two dimensional material, with a carbon atom thickness. It is the most durable and hard nanomaterial ever found.
The special arrangement of its atomic structure has made it widely used.
(1) The ultra thin graphene, with its tightly packed molecules, can’t let even the smallest of helium atoms pass through. Its strength is also super strong, and it is used in ultra light body armors, ultra thin and ultra light aircrafts, etc. .
(2) Its conductive atoms have a much higher speed than electrons that move in metal conductors. It can be made into graphene conductor agent.
The rapid movement electrons of this material, which is conductive, allows for its use in future supercomputers, curved mobiles, and photon sensors.
(4) Other Applications: Researchers have found that bacteria cells cannot grow on the graphene but human cells do not suffer any damage. This is a great opportunity to use graphene in bandages, food packaging and more.

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