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The chemical element bismuth is a bright white, red-looking metal that belongs to the p-block group of elements. It is a member of the nitrogen family and has 33 stable isotopes, including one that decays by alpha-decay.
It is a post-transition metal that is part of the group 15 of the periodic table. This group of elements includes nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony.
Bismuth atoms have three single bonds, with each bond having a valence of either +3 or -3. The valence electrons are distributed in the 6p orbital, like the other nitrogen-related elements.
Density, Electronegativity and Van der Waal’s Radius
Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of all the metals except mercury. It also has a very low thermal conductivity, making it an excellent choice for insulators.
It has a high level of diamagnetism, meaning that it produces its own magnetic field when exposed to an external magnetic field. This makes it a great choice for use in devices that require a strong magnet, such as medical equipment.
This is a rare metal that occurs naturally in many ores such as bismute and bismuthinite. It has a number of interesting crystalline forms.
Highly pure bismuth crystals form stepped pyramids or what is called “hopper” crystals. This happens because as the bismuth cools, it is driven to quickly create hard edges in order to form a cube-shaped crystal.