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barium arsenate is a solid phase that controls soluble barium ions in surface seawater. It is also a significant element in coal ash leachates and is a component of weathered fly ash.
Marine environments contain a wide range of organic matter and high levels of barium and arsenic, although the occurrence is much lower than in inland waters. Soluble barium is mainly found in the form of divalent barium ions, but a small amount is undesirably present as the heavy mineral barite (BaSO4)6, whereas arsenic is primarily detected as crystalline forms3 and is usually present in trace amounts in oxygenated marine waters.
In the marine environment, barium and arsenic are charged ions6, and there are a variety of mechanisms for their accumulation in organisms. In bacteria, both barium and arsenic are transported via phosphate transporters5, and in Entotheonella sp., barium ions may enter cells through K+ channels and arsenic through Ca2+ channels39.
X-ray fluorescence chemical mapping and LCF of As in filaments showed that barium was dominantly fixed at pH
X-ray NMR spectroscopy and XANES analysis indicated that the spheres were composed of a calcium phosphate hydrate phase with two different crystalline phases in the core and wall. The sphere wall exhibited a higher barium content than the core, and nitrogen was significantly elevated in the core (Fig. 3). Moreover, the cell fractions containing Entotheonella sp. contained a significantly higher concentration of barium than those containing FBAC and FSC3, and a permutation test, followed by Tukey’s post hoc grouping, revealed that this difference was not due to a difference in the composition of the cell fractions or the cellular size of the samples.