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tungsten parts are used in a variety of applications including counterweights, ballast and radiation shielding. The material is also well suited for ballistic penetrators and vibration damping. Tungsten is the second hardest metal on earth, but in its pure crystalline form it is also very brittle and difficult to work. Tungsten is normally heated to improve ductility and workability, which makes it possible to manufacture a range of shapes.
Tungsten is available in a wide variety of diameters and lengths. The quality of the tungsten depends on many factors, including temperature, oxide distribution and grain size. High quality tungsten lasts longer and produces less oxide during welding, which increases arc stability. It also has smaller grains, which are easier to weld.
Despite these advantages, traditional methods of producing tungsten cannot achieve the geometrical complexity and tolerances required for most uses. As a result, most industrial production of tungsten relies on powder metallurgy and additive manufacturing.
Although these processes have proven to be effective, they are limited in terms of their ability to produce fully dense tungsten parts for structural applications. To address this issue, researchers have explored cryogenic machining of tungsten sintered powder (CPW). Cryogenic turning is an effective technique for achieving good surface integrity and dimensional accuracy with a low thermal conductivity.
A number of studies have been undertaken to examine the impact of different cutting conditions and cooling systems on machinability. The results of these studies have indicated that the use of a negative rake angle and lower pre-cooling temperatures can produce the best machining performance for this material. However, further research is needed to determine how these findings can be applied to a wider range of industrial applications.